In the endgame, there is often a race for promotion. When this happens, it doesn’t matter so much how many pawns you have, as much as their ability to promote. This is because a queen is good at doing a mop up job. In this chapter, we will be looking at the situation where one side has promoted, and the other has a pawn on the seventh rank – a whisker away from promotion. This type of endgame is common, because it works with all the different pawns (a-h). The method that I am going to recommend is a simple one, which never fails. I call it closing the gap.
Closing the Gap With Your Queen
This study is taken from a recent blitz game of mine on chess.com. Both sides have made 48 moves already. In this position below, white must ensure that black is not given a move to promote, as this will result in a draw.
White to move:
49. Qa7+ Kf1 (49…Ke1 50. Qe3+ zooming into the position) 50. Qa6+ Kf2 51. Qb6+ Kf1
Pattern #1: Bring your queen closer to the enemy pawn, through checks – to keep the black king busy – until it is right next to it.
This pattern is repeated many times until the queen is in a proximity to the black king. Let`s see what happens if the black king decides to go away from the pawn instead of in front of it, or to the side of it (shown in brackets).
56. Qd3+ Kf2 (56…Ke1 57. Qg3+ Kf1 see the board below – carry on with 58. Qf3+ to force the black king in front of the pawn). 57. Qd2+ Kf1 58. Qf4+ Ke1 59. Qg3+ Kf1
60. Qf3+ Kg1 The black king is now in the way of his own pawn. This gives us time to maneuver our own king into position.
Closing the Gap With Your King
By this stage, the queen on f3 has got into the best position, but she can’t deliver checkmate on her own. It is time to bring your king into the position. This takes time, but there is a simple systematic way to do this, shown below:
Pattern #2 : Whenever the enemy king blocks his pawn, use this tempo to move your king closer to the action.
61. Kc2 Kh2 62. Qf2 Kh1 63. Qh4+ Kg1 The black king blocks the path, so what should you do?
64. Kd2! Move your king into position! Kf1 65. Qf4+ Kg1 The black king is blocking his pawn, how do we continue?
66. Ke2 Moving our king closer to the enemy king, to support the queen. Remember that a queen supported by another piece can checkmate the lone king on the 2nd rank (or 2nd file). This is why we have to bring our king in. I play some unnecessary moves here, but they don’t hurt. If you are short on time, repeating the position once or twice (not 3 times! = drawn) can buy you precious time to find the win. Kh1 67. Qh4+ Kg1 68. Qg3 (68. Kf3! is a quicker way to win … Kf1 69. Qf2#) Kh1 69. Qh3+ (69. Kf2 g1=Q 70. Qxg1#) Kg1 70. Qg3 Kh1 71. Qh4+ This position is the same as after 67. Qh4+ Kg1 72. Qg4 Kh1
73. Kf2! g1=Q+ (73…Kh2 74. Qxg2#) 74. Qxg1# 1-0
In summary, to beat the 7th rank pawn with a queen, you have to first of all get your queen close to the enemy king. Then you bring your king in, to support the queen. Once the two are nearby, then you can start to watch out for checkmates.
Simplifying the Endgame to Your Advantage
Now, if you understand that certain endgames are won or drawn, then it makes sense to see where you are heading in the late middlegame. If you can reach the position shown in diagram 1 then you know you have got the win in the bag, so all you have to do is simplify the position to get there.
Here is the same game, after I play 40. Kb4
1 Tempo can Win You the Game
By tempo, I mean a single move. If you have an extra move (or tempo) then you can promote first and go on to win. If you miscalculate the number of moves it takes your opponent to promote, and the number of moves for you to promote, then you can end up entering a losing variation. What you should do is calculate as deeply as you can in concrete endgame positions. There are few pieces on the board, so this task should be relatively easy.
In the game, my opponent did not find the drawing move, and played a losing move.
If you can get your king in front of your own pawn, in a single pawn endgame, then you can almost always force promotion, and therefore win the game. This technique has been demonstrated in the king and pawn endgame post. In summary, what you do is gain the opposition – the 2 kings seperated by one square, with your opponent to move means “you have the opposition” – then you outflank the enemy king and drive him back, until you are on a queening square. Then you push your pawn up the board. That is all well and good, except it is no good in rook pawn endgames.
No Way to Win
In the following position, there is no way for black to win – I hardly need to mention that white cannot win – regardless of who has the move, because of stalemate themes. First of all let`s suppose that it is white to move:
The draw is easy. All you have to do is oscillate the king back and forth on the squares g1 and h1. For example 1. Kh1 The pawn can`t promote if your king is in the way! …h2 stalemate = draw. The alternatives are no better, for example 1…Kf3 is met by 2. Kh2 going for the pawn …Kg4 keeping the pawn 3. Kg1 and after …Kg3 we are at the starting position again. Black has made no progress. If 1…Kf2 then 2. Kh2 wins the pawn. If it is black to move, then you use the same technique, for example: 1… Kf3 2. Kh2 and we are in the line discussed earlier. If 1…Kg4 then simply 2. Kh2 or even 2. Kh1. They are equally vaild drawing moves.
The King is in Jail
The main conclusion from rook pawn endgames is that they are almost always drawn, as long as the defending king is nearby. Even if the attacking king is in front of the pawn, there is a way to draw, and as the title suggests, it is about not letting your opponent`s king escape. This position is drawn regardless of who has the move:
A Useless Bishop
If a bishop starts on a light square, then it will never land on a dark square, and vice versa, because of the nature of how the piece moves. This is important, becuase it means that bishops can only ever control half of the squares on the board. In the first endgame position, you can add a dark squared bishop to the board and it would still be a draw. In the second endgame, adding a dark squared bishop would create a way to win, because the black king is active enough. Lets consider these possibilites one by one:
Bad Bishop but Active King
In these endgames you want to have a bishop of the same colour as the queening square of the pawn, to support promotion, but if the attacking king is active enough. By which I mean it is in control of the queening squares, then a win is possible, even if your bishop is on the wrong coloured squares.
White to move:
Of course black does not have to rush, and can even waste moves if needs be, by making irrelevant bishop moves. 1. Kf1 patrolling the prisoners door, not allowing say Kg1 and the promotion of the pawn. …Bc7 (1…Bb8; 1…Bd6 and 1…Be5 also work) 2. Kf2 Bb6+ The bishop is on the right diagonal. 3. Kf1 keeping the black king in prison. Now we waste a move with …Bc5! wins. For example 4. Ke2 Kg2 If it was black to move first, then we would just get on with the plan, and play 1…Bc7!
Practical Example: Good Bishop and Pawn
At a chess congress I played at – 20th 4NCL (Nottingham) 2018 – There was an endgame between a FIDE master and an amateur, which was pawn and bishop versus lone king, but the bishop was on the right coloured sqaures. I included this example, to illustrate the difference between a good and a bad bishop. When you have a good bishop in these endgames, it is always won.
Nottingham, September 2018
Willow, Jonah B
After 39 moves, this position was reached, with white to move:
At first glance, you might think that white is doing okay, because he has a couple of pawns for the piece, alas one of them is about to drop, because they are too weak, and the black king is actively placed.
White`s most stubborn defense is 40. Kc2 but black will win a pawn after …Bg5 e.g. 41. Kd3 Kf4 and white loses a pawn. In the game play continued 40. Kc4 Bxb2 41. Kxc5 Bxc3 42. f3 Kf4 43. Kxc6 Kxf3 44. Kd5 Kf4
White is now in zugzwang. In other words, having the move is a disadvantage, because when the white king moves, the e4 pawn will drop (If you are unsure about this, then please leave a comment and I will reply within a couple of days). White can play a4 (played in the game), but that is to no avail, because black can just wait. If on the other hand 45. Kc4 then …Bb2 and 46. Kb3 Be5 now the e-pawn will drop.
61. Ka2 a3 resigns… There is no way for white to stop the pawn from promoting. For example 62. Kb1 Kb3 63. Ka1 Bf6+ 64. Kb1 Bd4 (wasting a move, to force the white king to a worse square) 65. Kc1 (only move) …a2 and there is no way to stop the a-pawn.
As you come across various chess books and talk with other chess players, you will hear certain words such as ‘strategy’ and ‘tactics’ being casually flung around. You may think you know what these words mean, but it is quite likely that you don’t understand the precise meaning of them, and what they are telling you about a position or game. In my glossary of chess terms, I have explained all of the jargon used in my posts, but the two aforementioned words require further explanation. The first question I am going to answer is: What is Strategy in Chess? and then: What is the difference between tactics and strategy?
The Difference Between Strategy and Tactics
A commonly held misconception is that the difference between the master and the club player is the ability to see ahead many moves. Some even go as far as to say some 20 moves ahead. While it is indeed an important part of chess, calculating concrete lengthy variations is not necessary in many positions. A more abstract approach can be taken, by evaluating certain positional elements and formulating a plan. This is called ‘strategy’. The ability to do this well comes with familiarity of master games and analysing your losses.
The term ‘tactics’ is referring to the means through which a player brings about an immediate change in the evaluation of the position. There is a vast array of tactical patterns, which can be applied to particular positions, for example the fork which often wins the ‘exchange’ (a rook for a minor piece). This winning of material can often be enough to win a game at a competetive level. Of course tactics can lead to other winning positions, such as checkmate combinations, which win on the spot, and (for example) the creation of a passed pawn, which wil lead to a win through typical means.
Here are the points that I am going to cover in the next 4 posts:
The relative value of the pieces
Pawn structure and pawn weaknesses
Opposite side castling and pawn storms
Time and space
A Thematic Sacrifice – A Tactical Breakthrough
In the position below, there is a tactical motif, which allows white to obtain a winning posiiton immediately.
White to move
The move 1. Nxg5! punishes black’s weakening move. If black doesn’t take the knight, then white has proven black to be wrong, won a healthy pawn and destroyed black’s king safety. If …hxg5 The obvious move, then 2. Bxg5 and white has a horrible pin on the black knight. Black cannot move the queen, because his knight will drop. In the game, 2… Kg7 was tried. Here 3. e5 was very unpleasant for black. Play continued 3… Rg8 4. Bxf6+ Kf8 The question that arises here is: Should white take the queen?
Here we have to calculate.
5. Bxd8 Rxg2+ It seems like black has a perpetual check, by sliding the rook back and forth along the second rank. This would indeed be the case if it wasn’t for our queen on e2. 6. Kh1 Rxf2+ (other moves are inferior, for example any vertical rook move like 6… Rg3+ can be met by 7.f3 shutting out the bishop. White is simply a whole queen and some pawns up) 7. Kg1 Rxe2 (7…Rg2+ is not possible, because of 8. Qxg2) 8. Bxe2 Let’s count up the pieces. White has 2 bishops and 2 rooks. Black has a bishop, a knight and a rook.
Therefore white is a whole rook up, and will go on to win, so we can take the queen on d8. Although the thought of losing your queen on e2 can be scary, you have to step back and count up the pieces. If you yourself are winning their queen, then you should still be calculating this variation – In this case it turns out to be white’s fastest way to obatin a completely winning position.
Winning by Superior Strategy
This was a game between Nimzowitsch and von Scheve (1907). We can still learn a lot from old games, as the strategical principles are still of value today. In the position below, neither side has a knockout blow, but the strategies chosen will determine the course of the game.
Black opted for the aggressive 13… g5 which aims to generate some sort of attack on the kingside. This would be a suitable plan, if white was not able to open up the centre. There is a general maxim ‘A wing attack is doomed to fail if the centre is not closed’. This can be applied here. Let’s see how the game continued. 14. Be1 g4 Continuing with the original plan of a wing attack. 15. Ne5 Bxe5 Other options are similarly unpleasant for black.
15… Nxe5 16. dxe5 (16… Bxe5 is problematic after 17. Bxe4 and black’s centre will fall apart.) Nxc3 17. Bc3 Bg7 18. cxd5 exd5 19. Qb3 White has 2 strong bishops and pressure against black’s king position.
15… Nxc3 16. Bxc3 (16… dxc4 17. Bxc4 and white has permanent pressure on e6) Nxe5 17. dxe5 Bg7 Lands in the same position as above, by transposition of moves.
16. dxe5 Ng5 17. Ne2 Qe8 18. Bc3 dxc419. Bxc4 e6 will be a permanent target for white now. Bd7 20. Nf4
Let’s evaluate this position. Black’s attack on the kingside has fizzled out into nothing. Black would like to have his queen involved in the attack, on a square like h4, but his queen is tied down to the passive role of defending the d7 bishop. Black’s e6 pawn is a permanent backwards pawn and a weakness that must always be defended. White has complete control of the d-file, the bishop pair aimed towards the black king, and a strong knight on f4, which plays both a defensive and offensive role. It is clear to see that white has a much better position than black does. The original position was roughly equal, therefore we can conclude that black has chosen a faulty strategical plan.
In the original position, the best plan to play for an equal position was 13… Qd6
If White continues 14. cxd4 exd4 15. Qb3 Rd8 black is equal; he will move his c6 knight (to e7) and play c6 cementing his d5 pawn.
If White continues 14. Ne2 Since white’s knight is not controlling the central squares any more, black can try: g5 15. Bxe4 dxe4 16. Ne5 Bxe5 17. dxe5 (A gross mistake would be 17… Qxe5?? 18. Bc3 wins the queen.) Qd3 With an approximately equal position.
The Relative Value of the Pieces
Of course the value of the different pieces depends conpletely on the posiiton they take on the chess board. For example a bad bishop, which is hemmed in by many pawns will be much less valuable than a good bishop, which is free to move across the whole board. A typical example of this situation is the French defence (opening). They say that black has a bad ‘French Bishop’ – It is always the same bishop that is bad in this opening, because of the pawn structure that defines it.
White’s light squared bishop is much better than black’s light squared bishop. This can be explained by considering the pawn structure. White’s pawns are on dark squares (i.e. c3, d4, e5), whereas black’s pawns are on light squares (i.e. f7, e6, d5), and this restricts the mobility of the black bishop on e7. The bishop can’t go anywhere if pawns are in the way. This brings us onto a more general rule: A bishop is a good piece if allied pawns are on the opposite colour to the squares that it travels along. In this example the bishop travels along light squares, so it would like allied pawns to be on dark squares. Since this is not the case, this bishop is a bad piece.
In the French defense, black has 2 main ways of dealing with the bad bishop:
Playing an early b6 and Ba6 to trade off the light squared bishops.
Bringing the bishop outside of the pawn chain via Bd7, Be8, Bh5.
In my game against Manvith Sandhi (125 ECF), I employed plan #1 and obtained an equal position out of the opening.
In the centre of the board, the knight has control of 8 squares. On the edge it has control of only 4 squares. There is a saying: ‘knights on the rim are dim’ and more often than not this is true. From the centre, the knight has not yet commited to attacking one area of the board, and there is more flexibility. Tarrasch made the sweeping claim that ‘The best squares for the knights are the c3, c6, f3 and f6 squares’ This rule should not be taken as a definite truth, but there is a lot to be said for it. On the aforementioned squares, the knights are controlling the 4 central squares (e4, d4, e5, d5), which are of paramount importance to any opening. Another point he is making is that on the squares g3, g6, b3, b6 the knight only has control of 6 squares, and of these 6, only 1 square is in the centre. Remember that central control is an important opening principle.
In the middlegame, you want to find an outpost for your knight. An outpost is a square that cannot be controlled by enemy pawns. The idea behind this is that you can cement your knight there, and short of swapping your knight off altogether, they are not going be able to get rid of your well positioned piece. Here is an example, white has just played 10. Ne5
White has a lovely knight on e5, an outpost, because both the d and f pawns are unable to kick the knight away. The only way to get rid of the knight is by swapping it off. This knight caused black some problems here. Play continued: 10… c5 11. h4! A strong attacking move. Nfd7 (The natural 11… Nbd7 loses a pawn) 12. Ndf3 Nxe5 13. Nxe5
Just as you get rid of one knight, the other one takes its place! Black has to make a decision now. Either allow the knight to stay where it is for a while. Taking the knight leaves white’s dark squared bishop uncontested, and leaves the f6, g7 and h6 squares as weaknesses, so I would be reluctant to play that. The game continued 13… Bf6 14. Bh6 Re8 15. h5! g5 Black must try to keep the position closed. 16. f4 trying to open it up. Nd7 17. Bb5! Pinning the knight. Bxe5 18. dxe5 g4 19. Bc6 White has a large advantage here, and went on to win.
So we saw from this example that a strong outpost for your knight can be enough to win the game. The well placed knight restricts your opponent’s pieces, and can be the basis for an attack. If your opponent has to make unfavourable exchanges, in this case losing the dark squared bishop, then you have proven that it is the right strategical plan to position your knight on such a square. I am not going to talk about rooks and queens, because they need to be treated differently, and are the content for another post.
Approximate Relative Values of the Pieces
It is not possible to assign intrinsic values of the pieces, because it depends hugely on the position of them. For example someone might make an ‘exchange sacrifice’. Trading a rook for a minor piece. This is done, because they believe that their rook is worth less than the piece it is capturing. As a rough guideline, you can use these values:
Queen = 9
Rook = 5
Bishop/ knight = 3
Pawn = 1
Of course the king is not assigned a value, because he is priceless. Lose him and you lose the game! From these values above, we can conclude that 3 pawns is usually sufficient compensation for a piece, and that a rook and a pawn is usually about equal to a bishop and knight (normally the rook is better in the endgame, but the 2 minor pieces are better in the middlegame). The 2 rooks are supposed to be stronger than the queen, but in practice I have found it is much easier to play with the queen. However, if you are down material – i.e. your opponent’s army totals more points, then you must have positional compensation if you are to be equal or better. Here is an easy way to think about it, consider an extreme situation, where you are about to checkmate your opponent. You might be a whole queen down (9 points), but you are going to win, so this is irrelevant.
Please do leave comments below, with any questions you may have 🙂
As one of the three most important opening principles that I mentioned in this post, king safety is definitely an idea that will lead to quick wins or losses if it is neglected. The most common way to do this is to castle. In the majority of games, both players will castle, and the reason for this is to tuck your king away in the corner, to connect your 2 rooks and to give yourself the option of opening up the centre without the fear of your king coming under attack.
Basic Ideas about King Safety
In most games you should castle, to get your king out of the centre of the board.
Once castled you should not advance the pawns in front of your king, because these pawns are there to protect your king.
Watch out for potential piece sacrifices that may be used to open up your king’s position.
If you play the moves g6, Bg7 and 0-0 or any version of that – This is called fianchettoing – Then you have to watch out for wing pawn attacks, based around h4-h5.
The Damiano Gambit – An Opening Trap
To demonstrate just how important king safety is, I will show you an opening trap where this theme quickly wins the game. It also highlights the fact that the h5-e8 diagonal (and h4-e1) can be weak diagonals, and by moving your f-pawn early on this can run into problems.
1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 f6? 3. Nxe5! Offering a whole knight to open up this weak diagonal. … fxe5 ( 3… Qe7 4. Nf3 4. Qh5+
Black now has 2 options that are equally inadequate.
Option 1: 4… g6 loses a rook after 5. Qxe5+ Qe7 6. Qxh8 Qxe4+ 7. Kd1 White is winning in this position, because of a having more material than black.
Option 2: 4… Ke7 5. Qxe5+ Kf7 6. Bc4+ d5 7. Bxd5+ Kg6 8. h4 and white isn’t even material down. White has 3 pawns in return for the knight, which is considered to be an equal exchange, however black’s lack of king safety is atrocious, and white has an easy attack.
Paul Morphy Highlights Opponent’s Exposed King
In this game, which the unofficial world champion Morphy (1837-1884) played against an amateur, black did not castle his king and as a result came under heavy fire early on. It is typical in such games that the better developed side will attempt to open up the position to their advantage. This is exactly what Morphy did, even for the sake of a pawn or 2. Here it is:
1. e4e52. Nf3Nc63. Bc4Bc54. b4!? The Evans Gambit. The idea is that you sacrifice a pawn to gain time on your opponent. They are faffing around moving already developed pieces to and fro, meanwhile you can rapidly develop your own pieces and start an attack! If you play this opening you have to play with energy and keep up the threats, otherwise you will just be a pawn down.
Bxb45. c3 Gaining a ‘tempo’ (move) on the bishop. Bc5 (Also possible are Ba5 and Be7. These 2 moves are better than 5… Bc5, because Bc5 loses another ‘tempo’ after the inevitable d4) 6. d4exd47. cxd4Bb6
Let’s have a look at the position that has arisen out of the opening. White has a strong control of the centre that is uncontested by black, and white can castle whenever. However black must move his g8 knight out of the way before he can castle and this will take time. White’s c4 bishop is aggressively placed; aimed at f7. Black has made quite a deplorable mistake in principle. In most cases, you should not move the same piece more than once in the opening, but black has moved his dark squared bishop 4 times already. This wasting of moves is at the expense of a lack of development, and also a lack of king safety. Morphy quickly brings this to light…
8. O-ONa59. Bd3d5?
This move opens up the a4-e8 diagonal on which white’s bishop can operate. This also exposes the black king. An improvement is 9… Ne7 10. Nc3 0-0 Now the black king is much safer. This would be a roughly equal position.
10. exd5Qxd5? (10… Ne7 was better, returning the pawn, to castle as soon as possible) 11. Ba3
This is a critical point to take note of. The bishop on a3 prevents black from castling, and so the black king is doomed to remained exposed in the middle of the board.
Be612. Nc3 Gaining a tempo on the black queen – It is clear to see that Morphy was all for playing with energy and being extremely resourceful with his moves. once the queen moves, the centre will open up. …Qd713. d5Bxd514. Nxd5Qxd5
White is completely winning now. You can use this position as a puzzle if you like…
White to play and win.
Sacrificing a piece to open up the central files. A brilliant way to break through. Re1+ is an equally strong move, and if you found this, then you should be just as proud.
This position is hopelessly lost for black, because the black king is so exposed.
A Dangerous Gambit Against the Dutch Defense
In this following game, black accepts white’s gambit and as a result his king comes under heavy fire. For the sake of a pawn white gets active play, and since black neglects his opening principles of development and king safety white gains a winning position quickly.
1. Nf3 f5 (1… e6 2. d4 f5 is a safer move order.) 2. d3
Nf6 (2… d6 3. e4 e5 is a way to avoid
the gambit.) 3. e4 fxe4?! (3… d6 is a safer alternative) 4. dxe4
Nxe4 5. Bd3 Nf6 Black has already forgotten an important opening principle – You shouldn’t move the same piece more than once in the opening (without good reason). The knight has moved 3 times!
White has a development advantage and an easy attack after
this. (Better was 5… d5 to get the light squared bishop into the game.) 6. Ng5! g6 This move prevents the trick of Nxh7 when there is a threat of Bg6# 7. h4 Undermining the g6 pawn.
Rg8 Getting the rook off the h-file, where there were tactics of hxg6. 8. h5 d5 This move has arrived too late. White already has the makings of an attack. 9. Nxh7 What would happen if black takes the knight 9…Nxh7?
9… Bf5 Trying to consolidate the position. 10. hxg6 Qd7 11. Nxf6+ exf6 12. Qe2+ Be7 13. g7 This move comes with 2 threats. Can you see both of them?
Nc6?? A blunder. White was
threatening not only Rh8, but also Qh5+. ( The only move for black was 13… Bxd3 14. cxd3 Nc6 when black is still much worse, but does not lose immediately.) 14. Qh5+ Picks up the loose bishop on f5. And black can resign with a clear conscience.
Conclusions from the Game
In gambit openings you don’t have to accept the sacrifice. The whole point of the sacrifice is for your opponent to gain time against you, and to rapidly develop. The lack of a pawn gives your opponent more mobility too, for example losing a pawn can open a file for your rook to get into the game.
If you do accept the sacrifice, then you should try to develop as quick as possible, and to find safety for your king. It is often possible to do this, but if you can’t, then accepting the gambit was probably not the way to play in the first place.
In the Dutch defense opening, black has to be careful of his weakened h5-e8 diagonal, because of potential checkmate ideas early on. Remember that with every pawn move you are creating certain weaknesses. It is understanding the extent of significance of these weaknesses, and managing them that will make you a stronger player.
Avoid moving the same piece several times in the opening, because this wastes time, and deprives your other pieces of development.
There are 3 main stages to each and every game of chess. These are the opening, middlegame and endgame. The way in which you formulate ideas will depend on which stage of the game you are in. A defining characteristic of the endgame is that your king becomes an attacking piece, whereas in the middlegame your king would almost always be in danger, if it walked out into the open. To march your king out in the opening is a subject of humour.
The focus of this chapter is to highlight the main opening principles in chess, and to show you the consequences of disregarding these principles. There is a famous quote by Spielmann ‘Play the opening like a book, the middlegame like a magician, and the endgame like a machine.’ There are many truths in this.
Key Opening Principles
Develop your pieces.
Gain control of the center.
Get your king to safety.
These 3 points are the key to every opening. If you can accomplish these, then you can move on to middlegame ideas, in particular attacking plans. Through the use of some illustrative examples, I am going to show you how masters use these principles to win their own games.
Tal Exploits Opponent’s Neglect for Opening Principles
Tal – Tringov
In this game, ex world champion Mikhail Tal illustrates how important these fundamental opening principles really are. Once the position opens up, black is suffering from poor development, while white has got all of his pieces in the game. This positional advantage materializes in the form of a tactical combination, which leads to forced checkmate.
1. e4 g6 2. d4 Bg7 3. Nc3 d6 4. Nf3 c6 5. Bg5 Qb6
Already white has developed 3/4 of his major pieces, while black has only developed 1/4. The white knights on c3 and f3 control the central squares d4, e4, d5 and e5, so white clearly has a pleasant control of the center. Black has not yet committed a pawn to the center, but he will try to play e5 at a later stage.
6. Qd2 Qxb27. Rb1 Qa3
White has allowed black to win the b2 pawn. You could say he sacrificed this pawn, but white does get significant compensation in return. Since the b-file is now semi-open, white’s b1 rook has much better scope, and black’s queen on a3 is really misplaced. Therefor black will have to waste even more time to get his queen back into play. Meanwhile white will carry on with standard development.
8. Bc4 Qa5 9. 0-0 e6?
The last move 9…e6? was awarded a question mark, because it is a mistake. It is too slow – black can’t afford to lose any more time – he is behind in development as it is. Better was 9… Nd7 which prepares an immediate e5, saving a tempo.
White has achieved all the opening principles.
All 4/4 minor pieces are playing a part in the game, and the rook on b1 is developed as well. Okay, the f1 rook would be slightly better on e1, in case the center opens up, but compared to black he has a huge lead in development. Black still only has 1/4 minor pieces developed, and it will be a long time before either of his rooks enter the game.
White has a strong center, with pawns on d4 and e4 controlling the squares c5, d5, e5, f5. His pieces also support this center. Black has less space than white, and will suffer from a cramped position if he doesn’t play a pawn break such as e5 to take back some control of the center.
White’s king is very safe, because it is castled. On the other hand, black’s king is still in the middle, and is likely to be subject to an attack from all directions, especially if the position opens up.
10. Rfe1 a6 11. Bf4 e5 12. dxe5 dxe5
There is a general rule which can be applied to many positions: Opening up the position favours the side who is better developed. This position is no exception. White is going to put a rook on d1 to demonstrate complete dominance over the d-file. All the pieces are perfectly positioned and there is no better time than now for white to attack.
This is quite an unbelievable move. White leaves 2 of his pieces en prise, but capturing either of them will give Tal a completely winning position, and if Tringov does not capture either piece, then white will just carry on with the attack. In the game, black decides to take on c3. Let’s see what would have happened if he had taken on f4.
(13…exf4 14. Nd5! (threatening Nc7+ and Qd8#) …cxd5 15. exd5+ Be6 the only try 16. dxe6 white`s position is just too strong. For example 16… f6 17. Rxb7 with too many threats to stop.)
Qxc3 14. Red1 Nd7
Find the winning move for white.
There is a lovely combination that Tal had foreseen, which forces the win.
Another sacrifice – Once you have sacrificed one piece, you have to keep the momentum going. Throw more wood on the fire. The queen and knight combine powerfully in a number of checkmate sequences, and after the black king recaptures, white can bring his knight into the attack with tempo.
If black doesn’t take the bishop, then 15… Kd8 will be met by 16. Rxb7 Ngf6 17. Bg5 with the unstoppable threat of Rxd7+ leading to checkmate.
16. Ng5+ The knight enters the attack with tempo. … Ke8 17. Qe6+ Black resigns, because there is no way to stop checkmate. If 17… Kd8 then 18. Nf7+ Kc7 19. Qd6# Don’t forget that the rook on b1 stops the king running away to b6, which is why it paid dividends to position it so actively in the first place.
Conclusions from the Game
In this game, black neglected all 3 of the opening principles, and as a result suffered a quick loss. White capitalized on his lead in development by opening up the position, and then moving the queen into an attacking position, even at the expense of a whole piece. Then Tal brought his rook onto the open file with the threat of checkmate on d8. Now, being a piece down Tal didn’t have time to faff about. He got on with the attack, by sacrificing yet another piece; his light squared bishop – to remove a defender of the black king – the pawn on f7. After black captured, white brought his knight in with check. It is well-known that the queen and knight coordinate well in checkmate combinations, and checkmate was unstoppable.
This game just goes to show that if you neglect your opening principles, then you might be subjected to an attack from an early stage. On the other hand, if you play like Mikhail Tal and ensure that your pieces are well positioned, and you have a strong center and king safety, then you may well notch up a few quick wins yourself! For further reading on this topic, I recommend this article, which teaches you how to understand the ideas behind the opening moves.
Some games finish in 20 moves with a checkmate combination, others are decided in the middlegame, but many enter the final stage of the game – The endgame. The difference between understanding these positions or not equates to the result of the game, so it is really important that you don’t dismiss this part of the game. What I like about endgames is that because there are fewer pieces on the board, your analysis can be more complete, and a deeper understanding can be achieved. In this chapter, we will look at the rule of the square, which is both easy to learn and applicable to many positions.
To Push or not to Push
In this position below, if it is white to move, then white will win, but if it is black to move, then it will be drawn:
In this position, the only move that wins is to push the pawn with 1. a4 and so the race begins. …Kf6 2. a5 Ke6 3. a6 Kd6 4. a7 Kc7 5. a8 = Q it should be clear to see that white has won the race, and the game as well. You might still be wondering what the rule of the square is and how can it be used to help make your decisions. Here it is…
The Rule of the Square – A Visual Approach
Below is an example of the square coming into play in the first scenario we looked at:
The idea is that if the black king can jump into ‘the square’ at any point in time, then he will catch the pawn. In this position even if it is black to move, he won’t be able to jump inside the square, and will therefore lose after white promotes to a queen (or rook).
To construct the square, you count how many squares are ahead of the pawn, then make the same length to the side of the pawn. The main idea behind it is that the enemy king can approach from any direction: the side, below, diagonal, but if that king cannot get inside the square, then it won’t catch the pawn.
Different Routes, but the Same Number of Moves
An important concept to understand about all endgames is that the king can get to a final destination via several routes in the same number of moves. This is very important when the king plays a dual role – When it has to be able to go in a different direction if that is required to win.
Going back to the first example:
Let`s now suppose that it is black to move in this position. There are several ways to draw this. For example: 1. Kf8 a4 2. Ke8 a5 3. Kd8 a6 4. Kc8 a7 5. Kb7 a8=Q+ 6. Kxa8 draw.
But that is not the only way that black could draw the position. As long as the black king is moving in a leftwards direction – and is able to jump into the square, then it will be drawn. Here is another example: 1… Kf7 2. a4
Visually, it is clear to see that the black king is going to enter the square on the very next move. 2… Ke6 3. a5 Kd5 4. a6 Kc6 5. a7 Kb7 6. a8=Q+ and the queen gets gobbled up again … Kxa8 draw.
You should also note that if white tries to move his king forwards instead of pushing the pawn, this also fails to win, because the black king can just move back and forth.
Reti`s Study – Dual Purpose King Manoeuvers
Now that you are familiar with the simplest version of this idea, I want to show you how it can be applied to a more complicated example, which was a study of Richard Reti – one of the greatest players of the 1920s. White to move:
At first glace it looks like white is hopelessly lost, because there is no way to get the white king inside the square, and the white pawn is about to be devoured by the black king. There is one move that saves the day for white though.
1. Kg7! The king goes down towards the black pawn and across to help the white pawn at the same time. …h4 2. Kg6 now the white king is in its perfect position, ready to react accordingly.
In this position, black has 2 logical options.
A) Firstly, he could try to just march his h-pawn down to victory. The white king won’t be able to catch it. While this is true, it does not mean that black can win. For example 2…h3 3. Ke7 the king has now decided which way it must go – to help the white pawn promote. …h2 4. c7 Kb7 (4…h1=Q 5. c8=Q+ also draws) 5. Kd7 h1=Q 6. c7=Q+ Now both sides have a queen, and it will be drawn with correct play.
B) Alternatively, black could try to capture white`s c-pawn and hope that his black pawn will still make it. Let`s see what happens here: 2… Kb6 3. Ke5! (note that 3. Kg5 fails because of …h3! and the pawn is unstoppable) Even at this stage, the king has a dual role. If black now advances the h-pawn, the white king commits to helping the c-pawn promote. 3…h3 4. Kd6 h2 5. c7 h1=Q 6. c8=Q draw.
If black decides to take the pawn with 3… Kxc6 then white goes in the other direction, and enters the square of the black pawn. 4. Kf4 ( 4. Ke4 also works)
The fact that it is black to move in this position does not matter, because the white king is already inside the square. Hopefully you can now see how this concept can be very useful. 4… h3 5. Kg3 h2 6. Kxh2 draw.
To consolidate your learning, I would recommend working through this lesson on chess.com. As always, if you have any questions about the content covered, feel free to ask them in the comments.
Welcome to my chess improvement website. As an art, a sport and a science, chess has a lot to offer. Different people take different approaches to the game, and get different forms of fulfillment in doing so. What virtually all chess players benefit from is a logical way of thinking, which means that you will become a better decision maker.
With more possible positions than atoms in the known universe, chess has plenty of room for expanding. Nowadays, chess professionals train with powerful chess engines, that can calculate up to 20 moves deep, and can play better than any human alive today, which raises the level of play, and allows anyone in the world, who has access to a computer, the ability to become a great chess player.
How I Began My Journey
I was introduced to the game at the age of six or seven, and occasionally played against my dad and brother, who were, like me, of beginner strength. Nothing much happened for a few years, until at the age of 10, I started playing against my teacher and classmates, and also joined the local chess club. Playing against the adults who arrived later, the weaknesses in my play were highlighted.
On one particular occasion, which I remember well, a strong league player sat down opposite me, and we played a game. He showed me where I went wrong, after almost every move! I was creating weaknesses in front of my king, and bringing out my queen too early on. He said “In every position, there are loads of trap doors, that you can fall through…” After a pause, he continued “…And what you have to do is avoid them, and lead your opponent into your own traps.” At that age, this made a lot of sense to me, and I was intrigued to learn more about chess. Soon after he said this, he trapped my queen at the edge of the board, as if to prove his point.
After one year, I joined the club`s B team, and started to play ‘proper’ ECF rated matches. I won my first ever game in just 19 moves, and lost the following one in 19 (through resignation). I began to buy chess books, and became a premium member on chess.com. I was learning fast.
The next momentous event was entering my first ever chess congress. I turned up at the Frodsham 2018 U120 congress, with no prior experience of what chess congresses are like, how to manage my time on the clock, or how to cope with psychological aspects of the game. After 5 rounds, I finished the outright winner, on a score of 5/5, and took home the princely sum of £150. I felt elated, and this spurred me on to get to the next level.
Since then, I have been to 2 more congresses, finishing mid table in each, with scores of 3/5 and 2.5/5, playing in a higher band (U135 ECF). At the end of July 2018, ECF awarded my first official grade of 130.
My Reasons For Helping Others
I want to see chess grow in popularity, and the number of chess players to rise. When this happens, there will be more competition, and a greater interest in the game. Chess will become more mainstream – like in Russia – and it will be promoted more in schools, as productive and beneficial exercise for the brain. As a result of chess becoming more popular, there will be more tournaments and local events, so that it is easier to get involved in this sport.
The Main Goals
This site is designed to take you from beginner up to strong club player level and beyond. The content included will provide you with the foundation to become an all round player, with an understanding of tactics, positional elements, strategies and much more. We want you to not only become a strong chess player, but also a creative thinker, and be able to develop your own style. In order to accelerate your improvement, the content released in each chapter will build on what you have already learned in the previous sections.
If you have any questions, don`t hesitate to leave a comment below, and I will get back to you as soon as possible.
To test whether you have successfully learned the different parts of this course, you should attempt these questions. This chapter quiz should highlight the areas you need to recap as well, before moving on to the novice course. Solutions are at the end.
It is white to move, what is the outcome of this position is it a draw or a loss?
2. White has not yet moved either rook or the king, is white able to castle in this position, and why?
3. Can black win this position, and how?
4. What is the correct notation for the move played in this position below?
5. What is the correct notation for the move played in this position below?
6. How does white checkmate black in 1 move?
7. How does white checkmate black in 1 move?
8. How does black checkmate white in 2 moves?
9. What is the result of this position, is it won/drawn?
In every game, there will be some kind of fight for the centre. The centre is the heart of the chess board, where all of the action is happening. If you gain strong central control, you have more options of where to focus your attack later on in the game.
In the corner of the chess board, a knight has control of 2 squares. At the edge, it has 4 squares, but in the centre of the board, a knight has control of 8 squares. The potential of the knight is maximised therefore when placed in the centre. To support your central pawns, the knights are often used, because they are short ranged pieces, suitable for this purpose.
Please get your chess board out now, as I start with the notation.
In this position, white has a strong grip on the centre with the pawns on c4 and d4. Whites knights are well placed on c3 and f3, from where they support their own pawns, and control the central squares (d4, d5, e4, e5). If white can play the move e4 soon, then white’s big centre would be hard to break down. To circumvent this, black strikes back in the centre immediately, with 7…, e5 White continues 8. e4 c6
The move c6 prepares d5, where black gains more space, and doesn’t become overpowered by whites big centre. If black didn’t play these moves, then the position would soon become cramped, and black’s pieces would be restricted.
9. Be3 Ng4 Trying to exchange blacks knight for white’s bishop on e3, because at the top level it is widely believed that bishops are slightly favourable to knights, in most positions. 10. Bg5 Qb6 11. h3 Botvinnik was now surprised by: exd4! (see board below) When he had probably expected the knight to drop back with (11…, Nf6). If white takes black’s knight here, then black will take his. Materialistically this trade is fair, but positionally white is doing worse, because his centre has fallen apart.
This position has already become complicated, but white finds a good move here, which alleviates the threat of his knight being captured and at first it seems to win material… 12. Na4 It seems that since black has 2 pieces under attack, one of them will be lost. However due to tactical reasons, which Smyslov will have calculated beforehand, black can win back the temporarily lost piece. Qa6 13. hxg4 b5!
The white knight on a4 has no squares to go to, so instead of worrying about a piece that is lost anyway, white wins back a central pawn with 14. Nxd4 bxa4 15. Nxc6 This is a tactic, not a blunder…, Qxc3
How does white win back the material? Notice that the white light squared bishop is on the same diagonal as the black queen and rook. With white`s next move, white skewers these pieces. 16. e5 The tactical justification. Qxc4 17. Bxa8 Now black is the ‘exchange’ down. In return for this material loss, black claims that he is positionally better, and this soon liquidates in the form of material gains as we shall see… Nxe5 18. Rc1 Qb4 19. a3 Qxb2 20. Qxa4
Here black finds an excellent move 20…, Bb7! With the exchange of light squared bishops, the white king would suffer vulnerability on the light squares, which were previously guarded by the light squares bishop. From here onward, things complicate further, as the next sequence of moves brings about the exchange of: the black queen for both white bishops and his rook. 21. Rb1? (if white had played the simple 21. Bxb7, then the position would have been roughly equal.For example 21…, Qxb7 22. Rc3 h6) …, Nf3+22. Kh1 Bxa8! 23. Rxb2 Nxg5+ A discovered check – when the knight moves it unleashes the bishop. 24. Kh2 Nf3+ 25. Kh3 Bxb2
After the exchanges have been made, black is clearly in an advantageous position. The three pieces are plenty enough for the queen, when in a few moves time they are fully coordinating. 26. Qxa7 Be4 27. a4 Kg7 28. Rd1 Be5 29. Qe7 Rc8! (see board below) Now the rook is ready to join in the attack. Notice that black’s king is safe on g7, because the white queen can’t threaten the king by herself, and black`s dark squared bishop guards against any checks on the dark squared diagonal.
30. a5 Rc2 31. Kg2 Blacks light squared bishop does a fine job of controlling white’s passed a-pawn’s queening square – a8. …, Nd4+ discovered check. 32. Kf1 Bf3 33. Rb1Nc6 White resigned.
In this game, the control of the centre proved to be so important, especially in the middlegame. With 11…, exd4 black proved that white`s centre was not as solid as it seemed. After 14. Nxd4 White recaptures a lost pawn in the centre. When black plays 17…, Nxe5 white’s centre has collapsed altogether and the only plus in his position is that he has a queen.
If you have any questions about any of the positions that arose in the game, then please leave a comment below.
I have witnessed many painful attempts of beginners at the king and rook v. king checkmate. Of all the rook endgames, this is the easiest, because it contains the fewest number of pieces. All you need to know is a foolproof method, which works for every situation, and relies on just 2 key patterns and you will never struggle again.
The method which I am suggesting is not the fastest way to checkmate your opponent, but it is certainly the simplest. The first thing you have to decide is which way you are going to push your opponent back, from left to right, up to down, or the reverse of either of these two. The rook acts as a barrier, cutting off the enemy king from all of the files/ranks behind the line of the barrier:
It is also important to understand the idea of the ‘opposition‘. In this endgame, when the black king grabs the opposition, white checks the black king from the side, and this forces the black king to concede ground. This pattern repeats, until the black king is on the back rank, and when white forces black to move back, the black king can`t go back, because there are no more ranks left, and so it is checkmate. Here is an example of this checkmate:
1. Kd3 Kc5 2. Re4 Now we can see that the white rook is cutting off the black king from ranks 1-4.
2…, Kd5 3. Rh4 Ke5 4. Ra4 Kd5 5. Ra5+ Kd6 White forces the black king to concede ground. Now the black king can`t go on ranks 1-5.
6. Kc4 Ke6 7. Kd4 Kf6 8. Ke4 Kg6 9. Kf4 Kh6 10. Kg4 Kg6 Now white can force the black king to retreat, by a repeating pattern. 11. Ra6+
11…, Kf7 12. Kf5 Ke7 13. Rh6 Kd7 14. Ke5 Kc7 15. Kd5 Kb7 16. Kc5 Ka7 17. Kb5 Kb7 18. Rh7+ With this side check, we force the black king onto the back rank… Kc8 19. Kc6 Kd8 20. Ra7 We waste a move, so that the kings are three squares apart and it is our move. If the black king comes back on himself, then the rook check will be mate. Ke8 21. Kd6 Kf8 22. Ke6 Kg8 23. Kf6 Kh8 24. Kg6 Kg8 25. Ra8#
You will now be able to carry out a rook and king v, king endgame with no problems…One last little tip is to avoid putting your king on the same file/rank as your rook, because it will possibly allow your opponent`s king to pass through the broken barrier of a the rook. This is rather frustrating and time wasting, so just keep it simple, follow the recurring patterns, and you should never again have troubles over this endgame. For some practice, you can play this position out against a computer in this drill.